notification Created with Sketch. CORONAVIRUS: We are still taking extraordinary precautions to keep you safe Coronavirus update

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a condition that weakens the bones, making them fragile and more likely to break.

What is osteoporosis?

The stage before osteoporosis is called osteopenia, and is when your bones start losing density. Osteopenia doesn’t necessarily lead to osteoporosis though, and if you do have osteopenia you can take precautions to avoid getting osteoporosis.

It is usual to lose some bone as you age. However, osteoporosis is when you lose bone a lot faster than normal.

What are the symptoms of osteoporosis?

As bone mass decreases slowly, there are no obvious symptoms of osteoporosis. However, as osteoporosis progresses you may notice:

  • Back pain, caused by a fractured or collapsed vertebra
  • Loss of height over time
  • A stooped posture
  • A bone fracture that happens easily

What causes osteoporosis?

Common risk factors and causes of osteoporosis include:

Menopause – you’re more likely to develop osteoporosis if you’ve gone through an early menopause

Medication – taking medications for several months can contribute to bone loss

Genes osteoporosis can run in families

Lifestyle sitting for a long time, taking too much alcohol and tobacco can increase your chances of getting osteoporosis

How is osteoporosis diagnosed?

Your doctor will ask about your medical history, alongside discussing symptoms with you. A fracture is sometimes the first symptom of osteoporosis and your doctor may request the following:

  • CT scan your doctor can measure bone density and check for fractures in the vertebrae
  • MRI of the spine your doctor can see how recent the fractures are and decide the best treatment. New fractures are more responsive to kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty.
  • X-ray – these allow your doctor to see any fractures in other parts of the body, such as the hand, wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, foot, ankle and pelvis
  • DEXA – a bone density scan measures your bone strength

How is osteoporosis treated?

Osteoporosis is most often treated with Bisphosphonates. They stop the bones from breaking down so quickly and decrease the risk of fractured bones. They’re given as a tablet or injection.

Other medications for osteoporosis include:

  • Selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) – they help to maintain bone density and reduce risk of fracture
  • Parathyroid hormone injections – these stimulate cells that create new bone
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplements
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) – these are sometimes taken by women going through the menopause. They reduce the risk of breaking a bone during treatment
  • Testosterone treatment – when osteoporosis is caused by low levels of male hormones
  • Denosumab injections – this prevents bone loss by blocking a certain receptor in the body to decrease bone breakdown
  • Teriparatide injection – this is a daily injection that strengthens your bones

Your doctor may also recommend surgery for compression fractures caused by osteoporosis. They will advise on the best surgical option for you.

If you’re unsure what treatment you should go for, or the above treatments don’t work for you, our team of expert specialists are here to help.

This content has been checked and approved by

Dr John Outhwaite  ›

Dr Outhwaite is part of the team of skilled consultants and physicians at The London Orthopaedic Clinic, based at King Edward VII’s Hospital.

Find your specialist in osteoporosis at King Edward VII's Hospital

If you suspect you have osteoporosis and you’re seeking an expert opinion, you can find the UK’s leading rheumatology specialists here at King Edward VII’s Hospital. Our consultants are hand-picked for you, making it easy to access the best possible care.

Professor John Cunningham  ›
Special interests include:
Kidney disease (+ 11) more
Dr Deane Halfpenny  ›
Special interests include:
Acute neck pain (+ 17) more
Professor Charles Mackworth-Young  ›
Special interests include:
Inflammatory arthritis (+ 3) more
Dr Nora Ng  ›
Special interests include:
Osteoporosis (+ 2) more
Dr John Outhwaite  ›
Special interests include:
Pain after foot, hip and back surgery (+ 21) more
Professor David Reid  ›
Special interests include:
Rheumatology (+ 10) more
Dr Shane Roche  ›
Special interests include:
Strokes (+ 15) more

Need some help?
Call 020 7467 4344

Our team is available to take your call Mon - Fri - 8am – 6pm
Or request a call back at a time of your choice

Request a call back

{{ successMessage }}
Sorry something went wrong, please check the below errors and try again.

Sometimes it’s easier for us to call you.
Leave your name, number and a little information about what you’d like to discuss, and we’ll be in touch.

{{ hasErrors('name') }}
{{ hasErrors('phone') }}
{{ hasErrors('message') }}